Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease and many gene polymorphisms have been associated with stone formation. In this study we aimed to investigate another possible relationship between E-cadherin gene (CHD1) 3'-UTR C/T polymorphism and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in the Turkish population. Study population was composed of 143 patients with nephrolithiasis and 158 control subjects. CHD1 3'-UTR C/T polymorphism was analysed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Genotype distribution of the investigated polymorphism was not deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in patients and control subjects (P > 0.05). C allele frequency was 85.7 and 85.1% in patients and controls, respectively (P = 0.836). Genotype distributions of the CHD1 3'-UTR C/T polymorphism among patients were also not significantly different from those among control subjects (P = 0.636). Our results showed that there is no association between the CHD1 gene 3'-UTR C/T polymorphism and nephrolithiasis in our population.