Fetuin-A is a glycoprotein structured molecule which is mostly released by the liver. As a multifunctional protein, fetuin-A has positive effects on health such as calcification, cardiovascular diseases and tumor development processes with various mechanisms, whereas it plays a negative role in the processes of obesity, diabetes and fatty liver disease. There are a large number of studies reporting that serum fetuin-A levels are affected by several dietary factors. It is reported in some of these studies that several nutrients increase fetuin-A release, while some others have adverse effects. It is put forward that some nutrients such as dairy products, curcumin, niacin, palmitate, coffee and alcohol consumption decrease fetuin-A level, and dietary omega-3 fatty acids intake may increase fetuin-A concentration. In addition, it is indicated that high blood glucose levels increase hepatic fetuin-A release by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 enzymes and increased plasma free fatty acids do the same effect by increasing NF-B-K activity. Despite these studies in the literature, there is not any review evaluating fetuin-A, chronic diseases and nutrition together. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between serum fetuin levels and some diseases and the effects of nutrients on fetuin A levels were investigated with possible mechanisms.