In the current study, 33 isoquinoline alkaloids belonging to protopine-, benzylisoquinoline-, benzophenanthridine-, spirobenzylisoquinoline-, phthalideisoquinoline-, aporphine-, protoberberine-, cularine-, and isoquinolone-types as well as 7 derivatives of them obtained from some Fumaria and Corydalis species growing in Turkey have been evaluated for their in vitro antiviral and antimicrobial activities. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of the compounds using Madine-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines and their maximum non-toxic concentrations (MNTC) and cytopathogenic effects (CPE) were determined using acyclovir and oseltamivir as the references. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the alkaloids were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans by the microdilution method and compared to ampicilline, ofloxacine, and ketocanazole as the references. The alkaloids did not present any notable antibacterial effect, while they had significant antifungal activity at 8 μg/ml concentration. On the other hand, the alkaloids were found to have selective inhibition against the PI-3 virus ranging between 0.5 and 64 μg/ml as minimum and maximum CPE inhibitory concentrations, whereas they were completely inactive towards HSV. © 2007 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung.