The goal of this study was to compare in vitro and in vivo efficacy of moxifloxacin and liposomal amphotericin B (Amp-B) monotherapies and combination treatment against Candida albicans in an exogenous endophthalmitis model in rabbit eyes. Microplate dilution tests and checkerboard analysis were performed to detect in vitro efficacies. Endophthalmitis was induced by intravitreal injection of C. albicans in 40 rabbit eyes with simultaneous intravitreal drug injection according to prophylactic treatment groups. Group 1 (control group) received 0.1 mL of balanced salt solution, group 2 (moxi group) 100 mg moxifloxacin/0.1 mL, group 3 (Amp-B group) 10 mu g liposomal Amp-B/0.1 mL, and group 4 (combi group) both 100 mg moxifloxacin/0.05 mL and 10 mu g liposomal Amp-B/0.05 mL intravitreally. Clinical examination, quantitative analysis of microorganisms, and histopathologic examination were performed as in vivo studies. The minimum inhibitory concentration of liposomal Amp-B against C. albicans was found to be 1 mu g/mL. Moxifloxacin showed no inhibition of in vitro C. albicans growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of liposomal Amp-B for C. albicans were reduced two-to eightfold with increasing concentrations of moxifloxacin in vitro. In vivo, there was no C. albicans growth in the combi group (zero of eight eyes), whereas three eyes (37.5%) showed growth in the Amp-B group. Vitreous inflammation, retinal detachment, focal retinal necrosis, and outer nuclear layer loss were found to be lower in the moxi group compared with the control group. Ganglion cell and inner nuclear layer loss was observed in all eyes (100%) in both the moxi and combi groups, whereas only in 25% (two of eight eyes) in the Amp-B group. Moxifloxacin strongly augments the efficacy of liposomal Amp-B against C. albicans in vitro, although it has no in vitro antifungal activity when used alone. It is interesting that we found a synergistic effect for in vitro tests but failed to demonstrate it in vivo. When 100 mu g moxifloxacin/0.1 mL is given intravitreally, it has some toxic effects that are limited to the inner retinal layers.