The changes in the social, economic, cultural, administrative and spatial restructuring process in the world cause changes in various fields, as well as in rural areas. With the effects of these changes, development policies of rural areas have entered to a new restructuring process. The problems in agriculture sector, which has been regarded as an important component of rural policy for many years, has accelerated the disintegration of rural areas. In addition to this situation; increase in poverty and deprivation in rural areas, increase in the development gap between rural and urban areas with the rural-urban dilemma and rapid depletion of natural resources in rural areas have required the differentiation of rural area policies. It has been seen that in rural areas that are identified with the agricultural sector, economic-based and state-initiated approaches have become inadequate with today's neoliberal policies. There has been remarks that rural areas should be addressed with policies aiming at economic, social, spatial and environmental sustainable development, which requires multi-sectoral development and multi-actor governance, and that rural areas can be resolved through both sectoral and spatial approaches. This study aims to discuss in details about how the rural development policies in the world have changed together with the changes in the meaning of the rural areas and to answer the question of how Turkey's rural development policies have been affected by this change. The study handles the issue with a comprehensive literature survey and discusses the changes in the rural development policies of Turkey with reference to development plans and strategy documents. The study focuses on the changes in Turkey's current rural development policies within the context of the neoliberal policies and notably within the restructuring of the European Union's harmonization process.