Computational Methods for Forgery Detection in Printed Official Documents

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Alameri M. A. A., Ciylan B., Mahmood B.

2022 ASU International Conference in Emerging Technologies for Sustainability and Intelligent Systems, ICETSIS 2022, Virtual, Online, Bahrain, 22 - 23 June 2022, pp.307-313 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/icetsis55481.2022.9888875
  • City: Virtual, Online
  • Country: Bahrain
  • Page Numbers: pp.307-313
  • Keywords: computational methods, forgery detection, passive forgery, printed documents
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 IEEE.Printed documents continue to be the most commonly used media for information transfer in official context. However, such documents may be subject to illegitimate modification or malicious purposes. Therefore, agencies must be able to verify their authenticity before accepting them. This work aims to identify and classify the current computational methods that are used to identify and detect a forgery in printed documents. We focus on methods that detect forger passively, i.e., no requirement of active information to be included in the document during or shortly after printing. Hence, we classify the methods into four general categories. First, detection based on printer and ink properties. The second is based on character-level features analysis that is based on detecting imperfections produced by scan, edit, and print forgery techniques. It is also possible to detect forgery through analysis of paper properties. Finally, forgery detection can be achieved by analyzing the pixel-level features.