High-density dental implants and radiotherapy planning: evaluation of effects on dose distribution using pencil beam convolution algorithm and Monte Carlo method

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JOURNAL OF APPLIED CLINICAL MEDICAL PHYSICS, vol.16, no.5, pp.46-52, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1120/jacmp.v16i5.5612
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.46-52
  • Keywords: dental implants, radiotherapy, pencil beam algorithm, dose distribution, DOSXYZnrc code, PROSTHESES
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


High atomic number and density of dental implants leads to major problems at providing an accurate dose distribution in radiotherapy and contouring tumors and organs caused by the artifact in head and neck tumors. The limits and deficiencies of the algorithms using in the treatment planning systems can lead to large errors in dose calculation, and this may adversely affect the patient's treatment. In the present study, four commercial dental implants were used: pure titanium, titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), amalgam, and crown. The effects of dental implants on dose distribution are determined with two methods: pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithm and Monte Carlo code for 6 MV photon beam. The central axis depth doses were calculated on the phantom for a source-skin distance (SSD) of 100 cm and a 10 x 10 cm(2) field using both of algorithms. The results of Monte Carlo method and Eclipse TPS were compared to each other and to those previously reported. In the present study, dose increases in tissue at a distance of 2 mm in front of the dental implants were seen due to the backscatter of electrons for dental implants at 6 MV using the Monte Carlo method. The Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) couldn't precisely account for the backscatter radiation caused by the dental prostheses. TPS underestimated the back scatter dose and overestimated the dose after the dental implants. The large errors found for TPS in this study are due to the limits and deficiencies of the algorithms. The accuracy of the PBC algorithm of Eclipse TPS was evaluated in comparison to Monte Carlo calculations in consideration of the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 65. From the comparisons of the TPS and Monte Carlo calculations, it is verified that the Monte Carlo simulation is a good approach to derive the dose distribution in heterogeneous media.