Objectives: We aimed to evaluate oxidative stress [8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA)] endothelial damage [asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)] and markers of cellular inflammation [interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), neopterin (NP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and non-diabetic nephropathy who were being administered hemodialysis treatment because of chronic renal failure. Methods: In determining 8-OHdG, IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels, Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay method was used. Serum MDA, ADMA and NP levels were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). And hs-CRP values were measured with nephelometric method. Results: Serum 8-OHdG and MDA levels were found statistically to have increased when compared with those of the control group in patients groups after dialysis. However, serum ADMA and neopterin levels were observed statistically to have decreased when compared with those of the control group in patients groups after dialysis. But, decreases on ADMA and neopterin levels are still much higher than those of control. IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels were found to have increased when compared with those of control group in patients groups before dialysis. Conclusion: The oxidative stress in patients with DN, who were being treated with hemodialysis due to chronic renal failure, was higher than that of non-DN patients who were being treated with hemodialysis. In contrast with this, inflammation occurring in non-DN patients was found to have been higher than that of in patients with DN.