This paper presents a systematic revision of Fritillaria L. (Liliaceae) in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The genus used to contain 22 taxa in the Mediterranean region, but in this study it has been evaluated on the basis of 23 taxa. We concluded that F. armena Boiss. and F. zagrica Stapf are synonyms of E pinardii Boiss. Phylogenetic orders of E forbesii Rix and F. kittaniae Sorger in the Flora of Turkey were changed. F. crassifolia Boiss. & Huet. subsp. crassifolia was suggested as an Irano-Turanian element. Red list categories of endemic taxa of Mediterranean Fritillaria were revised according to IUCN Red List Categories.