A Rare and Mortal infection agent in patients with hematological malignancies: Saprochaete capitata Hematolojik Maligniteli Hastalarda Nadir ve Mortal Bir Enfeksiyon Etkeni: Saprochaete capitata


Aydin Kaynar L., ÖZKURT Z. N. , Ulkuden B., GÜZEL TUNÇCAN Ö. , Aygencel G. , AKYÜREK N. , ...More

Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni, vol.50, no.4, pp.613-620, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.28152
  • Title of Journal : Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni
  • Page Numbers: pp.613-620

Abstract

Saprochaete capitata (formerly known as Geotrichum capitatum and Blastoschizomyces capitatus) is a rare invasive fungal agent that may lead to mortal clinical course in patients with hematological malignancies. This agent can be colonized in skin, lungs and intestines, and it can cause major opportunistic infections. Invasive systemic infections due to S.capitata have been reported in immunosuppressed patients. In this report, two patients with invasive S.capitata infections detected during the course of persistent neutropenic fever in acute leukemia, were presented. In both cases empirical caspofungin was added to the treatment, as no response was obtained by board-spectrum antibacterial therapy in neutropenic fever. In the first patient, there were no significant findings except the chronic inflammation observed in the biopsies which was performed for the symptoms of lymphadenitis, myositis, and hepatosplenic candidiasis. While persistent fever was on going, S.capitata was isolated from the blood and catheter cultures. There was no response after catheter removing and the introduction of amphotericin B and voriconazole therapy, therefore allogeneic stem cell transplantation plan for the second time for bone marrow aplasia was taken an earlier time. However, the patient died due to progressive pericardial and pleural effusion and multiorgan failure, although an afebrile process after stem cell transplantation could be obtained. Similarly the second patient had persistent fever despite empirical caspofungin treatment. The additional symptoms of diarrhea, abdominal pain and subileus have indicated an intraabdominal infection. During the follow up, S.capitata was isolated from the blood and catheter cultures. Catheter was removed and amphotericin B was initiated. No response was obtained, and voriconazole was added to treatment. Despite of an afebrile and culture-negative period, the patient died as a result of Acinetobacter sepsis and multiorgan failure. Minimal inhibitory concentration values for both of the Saprochete strains were found as 0.25 pg/ml for amfoterisin B, 1 pg/ml for flukonazol, 0.125 pg/ml for vorikonazol and 0.25 pg/ml for itrakonazol. Virulence model was created by injecting the isolates to the Calleria mellonella larvae, and the life cycle of the larvae were determined. The observation revealed that the infected larvae began to die on the second day and there was no live larvae remained on the eleventh day. In conclusion, S.capitata should be considered as an infection agent with high mortality risk in the neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies, especially in the presence of persistent fever during the use of caspofungin.