Integrating mobile multimedia into textbooks: 2D barcodes

ULUYOL Ç., Agca R. K.

COMPUTERS & EDUCATION, vol.59, no.4, pp.1192-1198, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 59 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.05.018
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1192-1198
  • Keywords: Mobile learning, Multimedia learning, 2D barcodes, FRAMEWORK, ANIMATION
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the learner scanned the tag with the camera on his/her mobile phone and reached the animation and narration on the mobile phone's screen. Using this method, we created a new approach that reinforces printed textbooks, which had the poorest retention and transfer results. The results suggest that supporting a printed textbook with camera-equipped mobile devices and 20 barcodes linked to supplemental information, may increase the effectiveness of learning. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.