Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease worldwide and causes other associated diseases. In this study, we observed the effect of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and benfluorex treatment on muscular capillary ultrastructure. Adult male rats were used as the test subjects and each individual was intraperitoneally injected with one dose of STZ (45 mg/kg) to induce diabetes. Doses (50 mg/kg) of benfluorex were given to the subjects with tap water by intragastric gavage application once daily for 21 days. At the end of day 21, muscle tissues were obtained from animals and examined under transmission electron microscopy. From the data obtained with the electron microscope, it was observed that the control group had typical continuous capillary vascular structures in their muscles, while STZ caused disruptive disorder of the muscle cells in the capillary wall of the STZ-diabetic group. Additionally, the thickening of the basement membrane around endothelial cells, loss of mitochondrial crista in the muscle cells, enlarged endothelial cells, and narrowed vessel lumen were observed in the muscle tissue. The findings of our study revealed that STZ-induced diabetes disrupted the vascular structure, while benfluorex partially improved it.