The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of the insulation materials, taking into including three areas for the construction sector: traditional, alternative and advanced insulation materials. In the first and second part of the paper, the current state of heat and sound insulation and the studies made in the literature are discussed. In the third section, properties and criteria to be found in insulation materials for heat and sound insulation and the main international standards for evaluating material properties are dicussed. In the fourth chapter, existing insulation materials are classified and their thermal and acoustical properties are examined by taking into consideration water vapor resistance, fire resistance and environmental properties. In the fifth chapter, considering the existing insulation materials for heat and sound insulation, evaluations were made for future works. According to these evaluations, Turkey is predominantly be dependent on outside on insulation materials as well as on energy. The development of highly competitive materials and technologies is crucial in this regard. The studies in the literature are generally predicted to provide the desired insulation performance characteristics of the new generation composite insulation materials obtained from different materials when appropriate materials and binders are used and the necessary operations are carried out.