Mitochondrial hyperpolarization and cytochrome-c release in microwave-exposed MCF-7 cells

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EŞMEKAYA M. A., CANSEVEN KURŞUN A. G., KAYHAN H., Tuysuz M. Z., Sirav B., Seyhan N.

GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOPHYSICS, vol.36, no.2, pp.211-218, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.4149/gpb_2016021
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.211-218
  • Keywords: Microwave radiation, Mitochondrial membrane potential, Apoptosis, Cytochrome-c, p53, RADIOFREQUENCY FIELDS, CANCER-CELLS, APOPTOSIS, RADIATION, P53, APAF-1, NEURON, DEATH
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


This study examines the effects of a 2.1-GHz WCDMA-modulated microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic activity and mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi(m)) in MCF-7 cells. The cells were exposed to the MW at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.528 W/kg for 4 or 24 h. The antiproliferative effect of MW exposure was determined by the MTT test. Cytochrome-c and p53 levels were determined by an ELISA method. The relative Delta Psi(m) was analysed by JC-1 staining using flow cytometer. Apoptotic rate of the cells was measured by Annexin-V-FITC staining. All assays were performed after certain time of incubations (15 min-4 h) following MW exposure. MW-exposed cells showed a significant decrease in viability when compared to unexposed cells. A significantly larger decrease was observed after longer exposure. The percentage of apoptotic cells, amount of cytochrome-c, and relative Delta Psi(m) were significantly higher in MW-exposed cells. The percent of apoptotic cells and relative Delta Psi(m). in 24 h MW-exposed group was significantly higher than those in 4 h MW-exposed group. However, no significant change was observed in p53 levels. These results demonstrated that exposure to 2.1-GHz WCDMA-modulated MW radiation caused hyperpolarization of mitochondria that in turn induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.