Brain temperature fluctuations occur in consequence of physiological and pathophysiological conditions and indicate changes in brain metabolism, cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain functions and neural damage. Lowering the brain temperature of patients with traumatic brain injuries achieves considerable improvements. When the human brain is cooled down to 30°C, it switches to a sub functional regime where it can live longer with less oxygen, glucose and other supplies. Fluctuations in brain temperature cause changes in brain parameters which can be measured by electroencephalogram (EEG) and transcranial Doppler (TCD). It is very important to understand the temperature dependencies of brain's electrical activity and blood flow and their interrelations considering the good clinical results achieved by lowering the brain temperature of neurologically injured patients. Since protecting the patient's brain is of primary importance in many fields including cardiology, neurology, traumatology and anesthesia it can be clearly seen that this subject is very important. In this study, we survey the "state-of-the-art" in analysis of EEG and TCD brain parameters changing with temperature and present further research opportunities. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.