Hyperthyrotropinaemia, in which normal levels of T4 occur in association with raised thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), is usually picked up on neonatal screening. High TSH level can continue for a long time in some of the cases. There is no consensus concerning the follow-up or treatment plan for hyperthyrotropinaemia. In this study, results of a 4-year follow-up of 36 cases who had been medically treated are discussed. Low-dose (5 mu g/kg/day) L-thyroxin treatment was carried out in 36 cases that had 5 mU/l or higher TSH and showed exaggerated response to TRH test. Dose was decreased to 2-3 mu g/kg/day in 24 of these patients during 6 months follow-up. The drug was stopped in three cases because of the development of biochemical hyperthyroidism. Denver developmental assessment test was applied to all cases at the end of the third year. All patients showed a normal development in relation to their age. According to our results, cases with hyperthyrotropinaemia need to be followed regularly for a long time and a need for low-dose L-thyroxin treatment may exist at ages varying from patient to patient.