Aim Urinary incontinence is an important problem that can arise due to neurogenic or functional reasons and negatively affect the psychological, social and personality development of children. This study was conducted on secondary school students to determine the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence at night and/or in the daytime. Methods The study universe included all secondary school students attending public elementary schools in the city centre of Eskisehir (N = 34 000). Ethics Committee and Provincial Directorate of National Education approvals were obtained before conducting the study. A data collection form prepared by the researchers and a consent form were delivered in a sealed envelope to the parents via the students. The study data were collected over the period 09 May 2018-30 May 2018. A total of 6957 questionnaires that were fully completed among the 7370 surveys were taken into consideration. The statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS software package. Results The number of children found to have urinary incontinence was 215 (3.1%). It was seen that 33 children had urinary incontinence only in the daytime, 61 children experienced it both at night and during the day and 121 children at night. It was observed that 56% of the children suffering from urinary incontinence had not applied to any health facility for treatment prior to the study. It was found that among the risk factors for urinary incontinence were young age, late start of toilet training and presence of a family history of urinary incontinence. Conclusions Children with urinary incontinence and their families need medical information and support to reach the root of the problem and seek solutions. Accompanying pathologies in detected cases can be determined in the early period by means of school screenings, and medical evaluation and support can prevent adverse effects on children's psychosocial and personality development.