International Child and Information Safety Congress “Digital Games”, Ankara, Türkiye, 11 - 13 Nisan 2018, ss.65-66
The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in the perspectives of digital games using teacher candidates with divergent achievement goal orientations and demographic characteristics. The individual's achievement goal orientation is an important concept influencing the dynamics that motivate them and their behavior in the learning process. There are two types of achievement goal orientations, learning orientation and performance orientation. Learning goal oriented learners interested in self-improvement. They learn for curiosity, enjoy the learning process itself, and they eager to effort and to continue learning without giving up even if they make mistakes. Performance oriented learners focused on the result of the learning. They evaluate their success and/or failure by comparing themselves with others. They also tend to avoid performing on challenging tasks due to anxiety about failure. Additionally, these two orientations are divided into approach and avoidance. Avoidance is related with urge to preventing failure, while approach is related with the urge to achieve success. Even though learning and performance orientations may seem to represent opposite values, they may coexist. In other words, an individuals may have a high performance and learning orientation at the same time.
Individuals' achievement goal orientations are thought to cause differences in their views of the game as they change their motivation for success. For example, it is conceivable that individuals with high performance orientation may be more interested in challenging games. For this reason, it is important to examine the thoughts and approaches of the different individuals in terms of their achievement goal orientations. Digital games are an important means of entertainment and learning that have succeeded in attracting individuals of all ages and gender.
Worldwide gaming market sales prices have been estimated at $116 billion for 2017 and forecast for 2020 will be around $143 billion. Nowadays, this budget has been around about $50 billion of mobile games and this rate increases every day. The reasons for this increase is estimated that as increase number of mobile device, hardware and software capacities, while as the price of these devices getting cheaper. One of the reasons for the widespread use of digital games is that it is used in many areas such as entertainment, business, engineering, medicine and education. The appeal to such a large interest is because the games contain components such as entertainment, socialization, competition, mystery and reward. Because of the potential games have, they are also considered by the education field, and is used for the education of a wide range of people from preschool to adult working in the business world. Educational games developed to provide direct support to the teaching process, as well as informal learning resulting from different experiences in games developed for entertainment, are remarkable for the education. Some examples are information from games such as contests information with word games, knowledge about geographical structures/regions/cities with car racing, social or language skills during interaction in multi-user games etc. It is important to reveal the point of view of the teacher candidates who will teach z-generation to the digital games that have the potential to contribute in different forms of education. In addition, it is critical to examine the effects of different individual characteristics in the perspective of teacher candidates.
In this study, two data collection tools will be utilized. First tool is “Achievement Goal Orientations Scale” developed by Akın (2006). Five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). It includes 26 items and 4 factors that named learning-approach, learning-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance. Factor loadings ranged from .41 to .98. The internal consistencies of subscales ranged between .92 and .97, and test-retest reliability coefficients ranged between .77 and .86. Second data collection tool will be developed by researchers to capture teacher candidates’ opinions about digital games. The collected data will be analyzed with descriptive analysis and the teachers’ perspectives of digital games will be revealed.