The somatic chromosome number of 22 taxa and chromosome morphology of 43 taxa of the Sideritis (Lamiaceae) genus of the Empedoclia section were determined for the first time using Image Analysis System, All the taxa in the Empedoclia section belonging to Sideritis in Turkey have the same chromosome number (2n=32) and basic chromosome number (x=16). The chromosome sizes of these taxa are close to each other. However, in these taxa the amounts of B chromosomes differ. Besides, the existence mixoploid cells, similar to the existence of B chromosomes, differ in some taxa as well. In 44 taxa there are B chromosomes; whereas in 11 taxa there are mixoploid cells. In this study, the results obtained were analysed karyologically within the taxa of this section.