Caffeine is a psychoactive component with a chemical composition of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine. Coffee, tea, energy drink, and chocolate are the main sources of caffeine. There are several positive health effects of caffeine on diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between caffeine consumption and reproductive health is controversial. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of caffeine consumption on fertility. A literature search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and LILACS with the search terms "fertility," "infertility," "fecundability," "reproductive," "caffeine," "coffee," "tea," and "caffeinated." An additional manual search was also performed for missing articles. At the end of the search, a total of 13 studies were included in the present study. Six studies reported negative and two studies reported positive effects of caffeine on fertility by several mechanisms such as affecting sex hormones and reducing clearance during the luteal phase. However, no association was found between caffeine and fertility or fecundability in five studies. According to study results that revealed negative effects of caffeine, it may be recommended to males and females who are planning to conceive to decrease caffeine intake, especially from coffee. It may also be recommended to consume other types of healthy beverages and foods without caffeine.