Reverse iontophoresis: a non-invasive technique for measuring blood urea level


Degim I., Ilbasmis S. , Dundaroz R., Oguz Y.

PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY, vol.18, no.10, pp.1032-1037, 2003 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 18 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2003
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00467-003-1217-y
  • Title of Journal : PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.1032-1037
  • Keywords: urea, reverse iontophoresis, non-invasive technique, monitoring, DETERMINING ELECTROOSMOTIC FLOW, MODERATE VOLTAGE IONTOPHORESIS, HUMAN EPIDERMAL MEMBRANE, CONTINUOUS HEMOFILTRATION, DIALYSIS, ION

Abstract

Monitoring of the urea level of patients with insufficient kidney function requires repetitive blood sampling. The potentially painful nature of blood sampling and the difficulty of venous access, particularly in premature neonates, as well as possible complications of needle injuries, create many disadvantages. A non-invasive technique needs to be developed for monitoring the urea level for these patients. Reverse iontophoresis has recently gained importance and the possibility of extracting some compounds from body fluids using reverse iontophoresis has been reported in the literature. Moreover, a small, watch-type device has been developed for the determination of blood glucose levels using a similar approach. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possibility of extracting urea from blood through skin using reverse iontophoresis to monitor blood urea levels without taking a blood sample. In vitro iontophoresis studies have indicated that urea may be successfully transferred through the full thickness of human skin. The reverse iontophoresis technique was applied to 17 patients with kidney insufficiency and urea was successfully extracted through their skin into the collection solution. A high correlation (r(2)=0.878) between urea concentrations in collection solutions and urea levels in the blood was observed. These results suggest that it is possible to make a watch-type device for monitoring blood urea levels.