Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disease characterized by cerebral neuronal degeneration and loss in a progressive manner. Amyloid beta (A beta) in the brain is toxic to neurons, being a main risk factor for initiation and continuation of cognitive deterioration in AD. Neurotoxicity of A beta origin is also linked to oxidative stress characterized by excessive lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, changes in antioxidant systems, and cerebral DNA damage in AD. Furthermore, A beta can induce oxidative neuronal cell death by a mitochondrial dysfunction. Cellular injury caused by oxidative stress can be possibly prevented by boosting or promoting bodily oxidative defense system by supplying antioxidants in diet or as medications. However, most synthetic antioxidants are found to have cytotoxicity, which prevents their safe use, and limits their administration. For this reason, more attention has been paid to the natural non-toxic antioxidants. One of the most promising groups of non-toxic antioxidative compounds is thought to be polysaccharides. This study investigated the characterization and protective action exerted by exopolysaccharides (EPSs) originated from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B3 and Lactobacillus plantarum GD2 to protect from apoptotic activity exerted by A beta (1-42) among SH-SY5Y cells. We characterized EPSs by elemental analysis, FTIR, AFM, SEM, and XRD. The antioxidant effects of EPSs were determined by the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, metal ion chelating activity, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and superoxide anion scavenging activity method. The protective effects of EPSs were determined by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Mannose ratio, molecular weight, functional groups, surface morphology, and amorphous character structure of EPSs are thought to play a role in the protective effect of EPSs. EPSs reduced apoptotic activity of A beta (1-42) in addition to their depolarizing effect on mitochondrial membrane potential in concentration-dependent manner. These observations contribute the inclusion of EPSs among the therapeutic options used to manage various neurological disorders in the traditional medicine in a scientific manner, indicating that EPSs may be promising natural chemical constituents that need advanced research and development for pharmacological therapy of AD.