Background and Aims: Elevated plasma homocysteine (PH) levels have been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the influences of submaximal acute aerobic exercise and aerobic training on PH levels and lipid profiles. Methods: 69 volunteer subjects (21.12 +/- 2.08 years) were randomized to three groups as acute, training and control groups. Examination and blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise in the acute group and before and 6 weeks later in the training and control groups. Results: A significant increase in PH concentration was recorded immediately after aerobic exercise, compared with baseline values (p = 0.001). Although, in the training group, total cholesterol (p = 0.00) and LDL cholesterol (p = 0.001) decreased significantly after training, no significant changes in PH concentration, HDL cholesterol p = 0.087) and triglyceride (p = 194) levels were found. Conclusions: It can be said that the PH level increases following submaximal acute aerobic exercise, but does not alter after submaximal aerobic training due to training duration or intensity. Therefore, submaximal aerobic training decreases lipid profiles independent of the PH level. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.