Diazinon is an organophosphate insecticide has been used in agriculture and domestic for several years. Vitamin E (200 mg/kg, twice a week), diazinon (10 mg/kg, per day), and vitamin E (200 mg/kg, twice a week)+diazinon (10 mg/kg, per day) combination was given to rats orally via gavage for 7 weeks. Body and heart weights, malondialdehyde (MDA) level in heart tissue and ultrastructural changes in myocardial cells were investigated at the end of the 1st, 4th, and 7th weeks comparatively with control group. When diazinon-treated group was compared to control group body and heart weights were decreased significantly at the end of the 4th and 7th weeks. It was observed that, at the end of 1st, 4th, and 7th weeks there was a statistically significant increase in MDA levels when diazinon- and vitamin E+diazinon-treated groups were compared to control group. While at the end of the 1st week statistically significant changes were not being observed, at the end of 4th and 7th weeks statistically significant decrease was detected in MDA levels when vitamin E+diazinon-treated group was compared to diazinon-treated group. In our electron microscopic investigations, while vacuolization and swelling of mitochondria myocardial cell, of diazinon-treated rats were being observed, swelling of several mitochondria were observed in vitamin E+diazinon-treated rats. We conclude that vitamin E reduces diazinon cardiotoxicity, but vitamin E does not protect completely. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.