Test results of 12 reinforced concrete (RC) beams having three shear span to effective depth ratios and two main longitudinal reinforcement amounts are reported. Six of the test specimens were produced with engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) and another corresponding six with ultra high-strength fiber-reinforced cementitious composite (RMC). The shear span to effective depth ratios of test specimens were selected low to investigate the shear performance of ECCs and RMC characterized by ultra high ductility-moderate strength and ultra high strength-moderate ductility, respectively. Shear-carrying capacity and ductility ratios of large-scale reinforced ECC and RMC beams were compared and interpreted for different shear spans, energy absorption capacities, and stiffnesses. The experimental results showed that for the three different shear spans, the RMC beams had higher shear capacity results than the ECC beams. Using both concrete types markedly restricted shear cracking and led to flexural failure. Overall findings suggest that RMC beams have higher shear capacity and yield stiffness than ECC beams, while ECC beams have a higher deflection ductility ratio and energy absorption capacity.