The objective of this prospective cohort study was to elucidate whether bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a proinflammatory endometrial secretion cytokine profile and whether there is a relationship between BV and the concentrations of a number of key regulatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. A total of 198 women undergoing IVF treatment were included. Prior to embryo transfer, participants underwent screening for BV according to Nugent criteria by a Gram-stained cervical smear. The concentrations of 17 soluble mediators of human implantation were measured by multiplex immunoassay in endometrial secretions aspirated prior to embryo transfer. Seventeen (8.6%) women had BV (Nugent score >6). Multivariable logistic regression showed a significant positive association between interleukin-beta and the presence of BV (P = 0.011; Nugent score >6 versus <= 6) and a significant negative association between eotaxin and BV (P=0.003). No significant differences were found in the ratios of distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in endometrial secretions from women with or without BV. In conclusion, BV is associated with higher concentrations of interleukin-beta in endometrial secretions compared with women without BV. However, no distinct difference in pro- and anti-inflammatory profiles is present. An effect on endometrial receptivity is unlikely. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.