The continuing research for the determination of bioactive secondary metabolites from Turkish geophytes as therapeutic agents for dementia is mainly based on the need for drug candidates affected to brain areas. In this study, the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of the alkaloidal fractions of the tubers of Corydalis triternata Zucc. was investigated for their neuroprotective potential. Furthermore, the content of the active alkaloid fractions of the tubers was determined by LC-Q-TOF-MS. The tubers of Corydalis triternata Zucc. were collected from Hatay province of Turkey. The plant species were also preserved as ex-situ in Yalova-Turkey. The alkaloidal extract was prepared from the tubers. The anticholinesterase activities of the extracts and fractions were tested by modification of the Ellman's method. The optimization of LC-MS conditions was used in ESI in the positive ion mode. The in vitro tests were highlighted that the alkaloidal extract of the tubers exhibited the highest activity against AChE and BuChE with IC50 values of 17.56 +/- 1.0 mu g/mL and 326.23 +/- 2.6 mu g /mL (galanthamine 6.8 +/- 0.5 mu g /mL and 344.4 +/- 8.2 mu g /mL as positive control), respectively. The fractions CK-3 and 4 were showed the highest inhibitory activity against AChE with the IC 50 value (6.88 +/- 0.3 mu g mL and 7.26 +/- 0.3 mu g /mL), the fractions CK-5,6,7 and 8 have indicated potent inhibitory activities by compared with galanthamine, which was used as positive control with IC50 value 6.8 +/- 0.5 mu g /mL. Among the fractions obtained from the alkaloidal extract, protoberberine-type alkaloids were exerted the most promising activity against both cholinesterases. The present study was described for the first time the in vitro anticholinesterase activity of Corydalis triternata Zucc. as neuroprotective potential and their metabolite profile by LC-Q-TOF-MS. Besides, the anticholinesterase assays on alkaloidal extract and its fractions showed that protoberberine-type alkaloids were determined the most potent inhibitor against AChE and BuChE.