Duration of daily smartphone usage as an antecedent of nomophobia: exploring multiple mediation of loneliness and anxiety


Kara M., Baytemir K., Inceman-Kara F.

BEHAVIOUR & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, vol.40, no.1, pp.85-98, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/0144929x.2019.1673485
  • Journal Name: BEHAVIOUR & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, FRANCIS, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CINAHL, Communication & Mass Media Index, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Educational research abstracts (ERA), INSPEC, Library and Information Science Abstracts, Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA), Metadex, Psycinfo, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.85-98
  • Keywords: Nomophobia, smartphone usage, loneliness, anxiety, adolescents, INTERNET ADDICTION, MOBILE PHONE, SELF-REGULATION, SHORT-FORM, ADOLESCENTS, DEPRESSION, TURKISH, STRESS, PREVALENCE, SYMPTOMS

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the multiple mediation of loneliness and anxiety in the relationship between adolescents? duration of daily smartphone usage and their nomophobia levels, based on social cognitive theory. The data were collected from 274 adolescent smartphone users and analysed through ordinary least-squares regression analysis and bootstrap methods, as well as descriptive statistics and the Pearson correlation. The findings primarily indicated that there is a significant correlation between the duration of daily smartphone usage, loneliness, anxiety, and nomophobia. Additionally, both the single and multiple mediation effects of loneliness and anxiety in the relationship between duration of daily smartphone usage and nomophobia are significant. The findings further indicated that the single mediation effect of anxiety is more powerful compared with other models in which the pair of loneliness and anxiety, and loneliness as a single variable, significantly mediated the relationship. Based on our findings, it was concluded, as consistent with the relevant literature, that as adolescents? daily smartphone usage increases, they feel more lonely and anxious, and consequently demonstrate more nomophobic behaviours. The current study contributed to the relevant literature by modelling the relationships among duration of daily smartphone usage, loneliness, anxiety, and nomophobia.