The calculation approach for leakages of international tourism receipts: the Turkish case

Unluonen K., Kiliclar A., Yueksel S.

TOURISM ECONOMICS, vol.17, no.4, pp.785-802, 2011 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.5367/te.2011.0071
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.785-802
  • Keywords: leakage, tourism receipts, Tourism Satellite Account, Turkey, INCOME MULTIPLIERS, ECONOMIC-IMPACT, ISSUES
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Savings, taxes and imports, known as leakages, decrease the stimulus effect of new dollars in an economy. This study presents an applicable framework for calculating the net international tourism receipts of Turkey by eliminating leakages through an application of the satellite accounts approach, based on input output tables. According to the results, the proportion of tourism income leakage for Turkey is estimated at 38.5%. Although this proportion is within the limits proposed by the World Tourism Organization, the leakages can be decreased through the adoption of various measures: in most cases, however, while these measures will serve to decrease the leakages, they will also cause a decrease in total tourism income.