The aim of this study was to determine the effect of splenectomy in the short bowel syndrome. Twenty-four Wistar-albino rats weighing between 210 and 375 g were used. They were divided into three groups. In group A, short bowel syndrome (SBS) was created by 75 % bowel resection. In group B, SBS and splenectomy was performed. In group C, after transecting the bowel, it was anastomosed. Before and 45 days after the procedures, all rats were weighed. In all three groups, the first and final weight of the rats, the final bowel weight and length, the ileal and jejunal crypt depths, the villus height, the luminal diameter, the bowel wall thickness, and the number of apoptotic cells and mitosis per 100 crypt cell were compared. Periportal fibrosis, infiltration, bile stasis, and bile duct proliferation were detected in liver samples. The rat intestinal length and weight was the least in group B while the jejunal crypt depth was higher in group B than in group A and it was exactly the opposite for the jejunal and ileal villus heights. The ileal and jejunal luminal diameter, the ileal bowel wall thickness, the jejunal and ileal apoptotic cell number, the jejunal mitosis, and the periportal fibrosis were highest in group B. Adding splenectomy to an SBS model has a negative impact on bowel adaptation.