Background. Radiation therapy is a widely used adjuvant therapy for various abdominal and pelvic cancers. On the other hand, it is not a benign treatment modality, as most radiation patients suffer from some kind of radiation enteritis. Currently available treatments are only palliative and no ideal compound has as yet been discovered. The aim of this study was to evaluate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and to investigate the possible protective effect of the selective COX-2 inhibitor, Rofecoxib, in acute and late stages of radiation-induced intestinal injury in rats.