Calluna vulgaris L. (Ericaceae) is used for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments in traditional medicines. In order to evaluate this ethnobotanical information, its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities were studied using in vivo experimental models in mice. The ethanolic extract of the plant was first fractionated into five extracts; namely, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and water fractions. Among them, the EtOAc Fr. was found to be the most effective and was further subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures. After successive column chromatography applications, on Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel, a component, which is responsible for the above-mentioned activities of this species of Turkish origin, was isolated and its structure was elucidated as kaempferol-3-O-β-d-galactoside, a common flavonol derivative by means of spectral techniques. © 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.