Background Endodontic treatment is usually indicated when teeth with periapical lesions are encountered. However, sometimes root canal treatment results in failure. In that case, one of the treatment choices is retreatment by an orthograde approach. Surgical endodontic therapy is also an alternative to preserve the tooth. Various techniques have been suggested in the literature which has more predictable results. The introduction of modern surgical techniques have enhanced the results of apical surgery procedures. Operating microscopes, magnifying loupes, microinstruments, ultrasonic tips, and biologically acceptable root-end filling materials (such as MTA and SuperEBA) have been introduced to this field with the modern technique, thus the success rates of modern apical surgery has increased significantly.