An Examination of Coach and Player Relationships According to the Adapted LMX 7 Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

Caliskan G.

MEASUREMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND EXERCISE SCIENCE, cilt.19, sa.1, ss.22-33, 2015 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 19 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2015
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1080/1091367x.2014.977996
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.22-33


The current study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX 7) scale with regard to coach-player relationships in sports settings. A total of 330 professional soccer players from the Turkish Super League as well as from the First and Second Leagues participated in this study. Factor analyses were performed to test the construct validity of the LMX 7. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution for the LMX 7. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable fit indices (chi(2)((14)) = 31.36; p = .001;chi(2)/df = 2.24; GFI = .95; CFI = .97; SRMR = .05). Cronbach's alpha (a = .84) and construct reliability (CR = .85) indicated that the reliability of the LMX 7 was quite good. Factorial Invariance (Delta chi(2)(diff) = 4.49; p > .05) across samples provided cross-validation using Multi-Group Confirmatory Analysis (MGCFA). The MGCFA supported the model of league invariance. Evidence of cross validation and configural, metric, and scalar invariance tests suggested that the LMX 7 scale preserves its factor structure, factor loadings, factor variances, and item uniqueness equally well. Chi-square difference tests revealed full invariance (Delta chi(2)((6)) = 11.45; p > .05) and partial scalar invariance (Delta chi(2)((6)) = 9.46; p > .05). Overall, these results show that the LMX 7 scale is reliable and valid for examining coach-player relationships.