Protective effect of cerium oxide on testicular function and oxidative stress after torsion/detorsion in adult male rats

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Yesil S., Ozdemir C., Arslan M., Gundogdu A. C., Kavutcu M., Atan A.

EXPERIMENTAL AND THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE, no.1, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3892/etm.2022.11700
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
  • Keywords: cerium oxide, torsion, detorsion, testis, caspase 3, Bax, p53, malondialdehyde, catalase
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Testicular torsion (T)/detorsion (D) can cause testicular injury due to the rotation of the spermatic cord and its vessels, therefore it represents an urological emergency that is surgically treated. Oxidative damage occurs in the testis and distant organs because of the overproduction of free radicals and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines by reperfusion after surgery. Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles, a material also known as nanoceria, have regenerative antioxidant properties on oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of nanoceria on testis tissues in testicular T/D in rats. A total of 24 rats were equally and randomly divided into four groups: Control, CeO2, T/D and CeO2-T/D groups. Left inguinoscrotal incision was performed in the control group. In the CeO2 group, 0.5 mg/kg CeO2 was given intraperitoneally 30 min before inguinoscrotal incision. In the T/D group, unilateral testicular T/D was performed through an inguinoscrotal incision and rotating the left testis 720 clockwise, which was then left ischemic for 120 min, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. In the CeO2-T/D group, 0.5 mg/kg CeO2 was given intraperitoneally 30 min before testicular T/D. At the end of the experiment, testis tissues were removed for histopathological and biochemical examinations. The samples were histologically examined, Glutathione-s transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), paraoxonase (PON) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured via biochemical analysis methods, while the expression levels of p53, Bax and Bcl-2 were detected using immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed statistically significant inter-group differences in PON, CAT and GST activities and MDA levels. GST, CAT and PON activities were significantly higher, whereas MDA levels in the CeO2-T/D group were significantly lower compared with those in the T/D group. The T/D group had increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression levels in their seminiferous tubules compared with the control and CeO2 groups. CeO2 treatment led to downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Bcl-2. The expression of p53 was high in the T/D group compared with that in the control and CeO2 groups, and was upregulated in all germinal cells. However, compared with that in the T/D group, p53 expression was significantly decreased in the CeO2-T/D group. The testicular injury score significantly increased in the CeO2-T/D group compared with the control and CeO2 groups. Rats in the CeO2-T/D group demonstrated significantly milder tissue lesions compared with those in T/D group. The present findings indicated that nanoceria may protect testis in rats against the harmful effects of T/D. Further studies are required to evaluate how CeO2 reduces oxidative stress and cell death in testis tissue that underwent T/D-related injury.