The effects of burnishing and other conventional machining processes (grinding, reaming, drilling, turning, and honing) on the surface characteristic properties of mild steel were investigated and compared in terms of surface roughness, circularity (roundness), and cylindricity in this study. The effect of these processes on the microstructures was also examined to understand the relationship between the machining process and surface characteristic properties. All surface machining processes were performed under constant depth of cut, cutting speed, and feed rate. The highest hardness was obtained on the burnished surface. Experimental results also showed that the roller burnishing method is the most favorable post-machining process method for obtaining optimum surface topography on mild steel.