In this article, the historical period covering the years of French Mandate in Syria is examined. This period witnessed many important developments such as the drawing of Syria's boundaries and the shaping of the foundations of the state structure. These developments continue to affect the country in a variety of ways even today. As this article analyzes the political developments of the period, it also focuses on the historical ties between Turkey and Syria in terms of both events and persons, and looks into the effects of Mandate regime on the social and economic life of the country. In the final part of the article, it is pointed out that understanding some of the policies and strategies implemented in Syria by the French can help to make meaningful interpretations of current affairs in Iraq.