SİVAS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SCIENTIFIC AND INNOVATION RESEARCH, Sivas, Turkey, 13 October 2022, pp.574-582
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an emulsifying non-ionic surfactant in many industries; a substance; is frequently used compound as a foaming agent and oil emulsifier in cosmetics, food, pharmaceuticals, industrial washing and household cleaning products, and as an additive in various products (plastics, paints and polishers). Due to the contamination of SDS by different routes from industrial and domestic wastes in aquatic systems, is known acute toxic effects on aquatic organisms; especially on the hepatopancreas and bile. However, because of its chemical formula, it is rapidly degraded metabolically. Due to this characteristic specification, its chronic, toxic and teratogenic effects differ to the organismsIn this study, the acute toxic effects of SDS on Unio sp., living in the littoral zone of streams, were investigated by immunological (total haemocyte count) and biochemical parameters (glutathione and advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP). Freshwater mussels were exposed to 1 and 5 mg/L SDS for 72 hours and a control group in which no chemical substance was added was used in the study. At the end of the exposure period, hemolymph samples were taken from individually, and the total hemocyte count was calculated. In addition, gill and digestive gland tissues were taken and glutathione and AOPP parameters were examined. Total hemocyte count increased 5 times in the 1 mg/L SDS group and 3 times in the 5 mg/L SDS group compared to the control groups (p<0.05). Digestive gland glutathione activities were found to be close to each other in the 1 mg/L and 5 mg/L SDS groups compared to the control groups (p<0.05), but while the AOPP values were close to 1 mg/L SDS compared to the control group, it was approximately was found 2.5 times lower at the 5 mg/L SDS dose (p<0.05). In the gill tissue glutathione activity values, an increase was observed in the dose groups compared to the control, but no significant difference was found (p>0.05). Compared to the control group, gill tissue AOPP values decreased 6.8 times at 1mg/L dose and 10.9 times at 5mg/L dose (p<0.05). According to the results obtained in this study, it is observed that SDS has immunological and biochemical acute toxic effects on the freshwater mussel, aquatic invertebrate species.