Inflammatory pathways play a crucial role in the pathomechanisms of antidepressant efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, rs5275 and rs20417) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR, rs53576 and rs2254298) genes was associated with antidepressant treatment resistance, response or remission. Three hundred seventy-two patients were recruited in the context of a multicenter resistant depression study. They were genotyped for COX-2 and OXTR SNPs. Treatment resistance (according to two different definitions), response and remission were recorded. We did not observe any association between the genotypes or alleles of the selected SNPs within COX-2 and OXTR genes and treatment resistance, response and remission in the whole sample. Our results are consistent with those of some studies but not with those of other ones. Indeed, several factors could be involved in the discrepancy observed across studies. They include sample size, environmental factors, differences in ethnicity, different study designs, and different definitions of treatment resistance. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.