© 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLCJob rotation schedules are generally conducted without considering hand–arm vibration (HAV) exposure especially in manufacturing firms, such as heavy industry, which confront ergonomic risks easily. This does not create any occupational health and safety (OHS) issues in the short term; however, certain occupational diseases such as the white finger disease are inevitable in the long-term. This paper investigates how the risks of developing HAV-related occupational diseases can be minimized by producing optimal job rotation schedules using ergonomic mathematical models. In the proposed models, both ergonomic and traditional aspects of manufacturing environments are considered. Moreover, the skill level and workers' day off preferences are also considered for total system efficiency. The mixed-integer programming approach is used to formulate the models. The applicability of the models is tested using real-world data. It is seen that the total assignment cost of the models increases when the ergonomic aims are included in the models. Thus, there is a conflicting relationship between economic and ergonomic aims. The main findings of the models show that the employees' HAV exposure level can be kept under control with one simple constraint. By employing these models, employees and employers can be protected in terms of not only OHS but also economic issues.