Late-stage fatigue damage of an E-glass/epoxy 3D orthogonal non-crimp textile composite loaded in the warp direction has been investigated using a combination of mechanical testing, X-ray micro computed tomography (mu CT) optical microscopy and finite element modelling. Stiffness reduction and energy dissipated per cycle were found to be complementary measurements of damage accumulation, occurring in three stages: a first stage characterised by rapid changes, a more quiescent second stage, followed by a third stage where the (decreasing) stiffness and (increasing) energy dissipation change irregularly and then rapidly, to failure. Microscopy of specimens cycled into the transition between the second and third stages showed macroscopic accumulations of fibre fractures in sections of warp tows which lying adjacent to the surface weft tows which are crowned-over by the Z-tows. At these locations, the warp tow fibres are subjected to stress concentrations both from transverse weft tow matrix cracks and resin pocket cracks. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.