Effects of ketamine, thiopental and their combination on the rat liver: A biochemical evaluation

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Bedir Z., Ozkaloglu Erdem K. T., ATEŞ İ., ÖLMEZTÜRK KARAKURT T. C., GÜRSUL C., ONK D., ...More

Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol.31, no.3, pp.285-292, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 31 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.17219/acem/143573
  • Journal Name: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE
  • Page Numbers: pp.285-292
  • Gazi University Affiliated: No


© 2022 by Wroclaw Medical University.Background. In the literature, it has been suggested that ketamine-related oxidative organ damage results from increased blood adrenaline level, and thiopental-related oxidative damage is caused by decreased adrenaline level, suggesting that ketamine-thiopental combination (KT) may be beneficial in reducing the hepatotoxic effect of ketamine. Objectives. To biochemically investigate the effects of ketamine, thiopental and KT on the liver in rats. Materials and methods. Male albino Wistar type rats received intraperitoneally (ip.) 30 mg/kg ketamine in the ketamine alone (KG) group (n = 6), 15 mg/kg thiopental in the thiopental alone (TG) group (n = 6), and 30 mg/kg ketamine + 15 mg/kg thiopental in the ketamine+thiopental (KTG) group (n = 6). The same volume of distilled water as solvent was given to the healthy (HG) animal group. This procedure was repeated once daily for 30 days. At the end of this period, the animals were killed by decapitation and their livers were removed. In liver tissue, malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione (tGSH), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured. The IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, adrenalin (ADR), noradrenalin (NDR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were determined in blood samples taken from the tail veins. Results. In the group treated with ketamine and thiopental alone, MDA, TOS, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, ADR, NDR, ALT, and AST levels were found to be high, and those of tGSH and TAS to be low. However, there was no significant change in the levels of these parameters in the KTG. Conclusions. These results indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation developed in the liver tissue of the group that used ketamine and thiopental alone, suggesting that the KT form may be safer in terms of toxicity in the clinical usage.