Many hypothesis suggest that inflammation plays an important role in schizophrenia. Galectins can regulate inflammatory response in central nervous system. The relation between galectins and neuropsyhchiatric diseases and schizophrenia is unclear. The present study compared levels of Gal-1 and Gal-3 of patients with schizophrenia to that of first-degree relatives without the disease and healthy controls in order to evaluate any possible association. Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia, fifty-five unaffected siblings and fifty-eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls enrolled. Serum Gal-1, Gal-3 and CRP levels were measured. PANNS and CGI-S were used to evaluate the severity of disease. There was a statistically significant difference in serum Gal-1 levels among the patient, sibling, and control groups. There were no statistically significant correlations between serum CRP and serum Gal-1 or Gal-3 levels. Gal-1 values were significantly higher in the unaffected siblings compared to both the patient group and the healthy control group. Gal-3 levels were elevated in the sibling group relative to the patient group. In the literature, the relationship between galectins and schizophrenia is very limited and appears to be a new field of study. Future studies are needed to evaluate the protective roles of galectins.