The incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) has significantly increased over the last 40 years and continues to increase among the young male population. The geographical differences show that a combination of genetic and environmental factors play a role in the pathogenesis of TGCT. However, since the actual mechanisms involved in the development of this disease have still not been fully explained, studies at the genomic level have gained importance. Although TGCTs respond well to chemotherapy, 20-30% of patients display classical chemotherapy resistance. There exists a need for detailed investigation of the molecular mechanisms responsible for such resistance. In this review, we briefly discussed the current information on some risk factors and genomic factors involved in the development of TGCTs.