1. The effect of erythropoietin and some trace elements on superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of dialysis patients have been studied. 2. SOD activity of dialysis patients was found to be decreased. 3. The effect of erythropoietin on SOD activity was not found in vitro. 4. Plasma and erythrocyte aluminum increased in dialysis patients, but no significant change in plasma copper was found. 5. Plasma zinc levels of dialysis patients were found to be decreased. 6. These results suggest that inhibition of erythrocyte SOD activity of dialysis patients may contribute to their anemia.