Listening is a process during which what is spoken is heard and comprehended. There are many cognitive, affective and psychological factors that can affect this process. Anxiety, which is one of the psychological factors, is a distressing emotionarising from the individual and has a direct impact on listening comprehension skills. The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship among elementary school students' listening comprehension skills, factors affecting listening. The research was designed and conducted within the framework of causal comparison method. The study group of the study consisted of 130 fourth grade primary school students. The listening comprehension test, listening anxiety scale and the form of other factors affecting listening, which were developed by the researchers and tested for validity and reliability in the scope of the research, were used as data collection tools. According to the results of the research; it was found that listening anxiety and other factors affecting listening processes negatively affect listening comprehension skills of students.It was found that the other factors affecting listening, along with listening anxiety reveal more than half of the variance in their listening comprehension skills.