Noccaea camlikensis sp. nov. (Brassicaceae) is described and illustrated from a localized serpentine range in southern Turkey. Its close relationship to N. cariensis, from which it differs in leaf and carpological characters, is discussed. The protologue of this fairly unknown species can now be amended to cover better the morphological variability of this taxon. A comparative study of seed-coat anatomy advocates its move from Thlaspi to Noccaea; the relevant combination N. cariensis (Carlstrom) Parolly, Nordt & Aytac is made. The ecology of both vicarious species is discussed and their distribution mapped. (c) 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 150, 409-416.