Background: Turkish public hospitals have been subjected to health care reform because of increasing cost pressure, inequities in access to health care, poor quality of care and limited patient responsiveness in the last three decades. This study investigates the impact of recent hospital reforms on the efficiency of public hospitals. Methods: The study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the efficiency of Turkish hospitals by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The estimation of efficiency of 669 public hospitals of Turkey is performed by an output-oriented model of DEA under the assumption of variable return-to-scale by using data collected from the Ministry of Health (MoH) over the period 2013-17. Results: The average efficiency score is equal to 0.83 for all MoH hospitals. Considering the hospital type, the efficiency scores of training and research hospitals are higher than those of the general and branch hospitals. In addition, considering the hospital size, huge-scale hospitals have the highest efficiency score in all years. Moreover, overcrowded regions such as Marmara and South-eastern Anatolia regions had higher efficiency scores than other geographical regions. Conclusions: The results indicate that recent health reforms did not significantly enhance hospital efficiency. Thus, policymakers and managers should take the necessary precautions to increase hospital efficiency.