Cryopreservation is the technique of keeping living cells or tissues at ultralow temperature that no metabolic or biochemical activity can ocur. The use of cryopreservation techniques is highly attractive and has been increasingly applied worldwide. Cryopreservation of sperm, oocytes and embryos have been central to improvements in the assisted reproduction treatment success with many potential applications. Embryo cryopreservation is an established procedure and has been increasingly used due to novel indications as freeze-all strategy to reduce complications of assisted reproduction as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, pre-implantation genetic screening or single embryo transfer and cryopreservation of the remaining embryos to minimize the risk of multiple pregnancies. Sperm and oocyte cryopreservation has permitted the long term storage of gametes for patients with anticipated fertility decline. Ovarian and testicular tissue cryopreservation is the treatment options for prepubertal girls and boys requiring fertility preservation. Although they are relatively new techniques compared to gamete or embryo cryopreservation, they are both very promising and expected to be more widely implemented into the clinic in the near future.