In this study, non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the urinary bladders of water buffalo were determined in the Marmara, the central and western part of the Black Sea region of Turkey. In this context, water buffalo with lesions in the urinary bladder were obtained from the private and public slaughterhouses of several provinces. The lesions were evaluated pathologically and immunohistochemically. In addition, species of bracken ferns were identified in these provinces. Histopathologically, 39 of the collected tissue samples were diagnosed as neoplasia. These neoplasms were classified and graded according to The World Health Organization Classification of Tumours published in 2004. In this context, papilloma (16 cases), papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) (7 cases), low-grade papillary carcinoma (13 cases), high-grade papillar carcinoma (2 cases), and low-grade papillary carcinoma with hemangiosarcoma (1 case) were detected in samples diagnosed as neoplasia. In the collected bracken ferns, Athyrium filix-foemina (L.) Roth; Dryopteris dilatata (Hoffm.) Gary; Dryopteris filixmas (L.) Schott; Polystichum aculeatum (L.) Roth; Polystichum setiferum (Forsk.) Woynar; Polystichum woronowii Fomin, Polypodium vulgare L. and Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn spp. were identified. As a result, it has been understood that the consumption of identified bracken ferns leads more frequently to epithelial neoplasms.